Growing interests in renewable energy and prosumer electricity market indicate a demand for cost-efficient and highly-effective household solutions. Next to development of prototypical ideas, modern research also aims to maximize efficiency of well-known devices. Optimal design of a blade geometry is a key aspect in horizontal axis small wind turbine augmentation. The main difficulty to be considered is an airfoil operating in extremely low Reynolds number conditions. It was observed that transitional character of the flow causes deterioration of airfoil performance and eventually significantly decreases power coefficient of a small wind turbine. Presented study concerns boundary layer turbulation effects on aerodynamic characteristics of selected airfoil, with possible implementation for small wind turbine blade development. The geometry is analyzed using XFOIL codes to predict desired transition location. Obtained results are an input for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis performed in ANSYS Fluent, where different heights of boundary layer trip are simulated. Calculations are conducted for Reynolds numbers not exceeding 150 000 and include cases of pure geometry and airfoil modified with turbulator trip. Simulations based on Blade Element Momentum theory (BEM) indicate that application of blades equipped with boundary layer trips would increase rotor’s aerodynamic power coefficient and reduce possible instabilities in turbine operation.

1.
M.
Victoria
,
E.
Zeyen
, and
T.
Brown
, “
Speed of technological transformations required in Europe to achieve different climate goals
,”
Joule
6
,
1066
1086
(
2022
).
2.
Y.
Li
and
M.
Gaster
, “
Active control of boundary-layer instabilities
,”
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
550
,
185
205
(
2006
).
3.
H.
Demir
and
M. S.
Genç
, “
An experimental investigation of laminar separation bubble formation on flexible membrane wing
,”
European Journal of Mechanics - B/Fluids
65
,
326
338
(
2017
).
4.
J. C.
Lin
, “
Review of research on low-profile vortex generators to control boundary-layer separation
,”
Progress in Aerospace Sciences
38
,
389
420
(
2002
).
5.
C.
Lyon
,
M.
Selig
,
A.
Broeren
,
C.
Lyon
,
M.
Selig
, and
A.
Broeren
, “
Boundary layer trips on airfoils at low reynolds numbers
,” in
35th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit
, https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/pdf/10.2514/6.1997-511.
6.
M. S.
Selig
and
B. D.
McGranahan
, “
Wind tunnel aerodynamic tests of six airfoils for use on small wind turbines
,”
Journal of Solar Energy Engineering
126
,
986
1001
(
2004
), https://asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/solarenergyengineering/article-pdf/126/4/986/5626988/986_1.pdf.
7.
M.
Lipian
,
M.
Kulak
, and
M.
Stepien
, “
Fast track integration of computational methods with experiments in small wind turbine development
,”
Energies
12
), .
8.
M.
Stępień
,
M.
Kulak
, and
K.
Jóźwik
, “
"Fast Track" analysis of small wind turbine blade performance
,”
Energies
13
), .
9.
M.
Drela
, “XFOIL: An analysis and design system for low reynolds number airfoils,” in
Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics
, edited by
T. J.
Mueller
(
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
,
Berlin, Heidelberg
,
1989
) pp.
1
12
.
10.
D.
Marten
,
J.
Wendler
,
G.
Pechlivanoglou
,
C. N.
Nayeri
, and
C. O.
Paschereit
, “
QBlade: an open source tool for design and simulation of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines
,”
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
3
,
264
269
(
2013
).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.