There are various non-destructive methods presented to measure residual stresses, among which the ultrasonic technique has received the greatest attention in investigating the physical and mechanical properties of materials, detecting of the defects, and resolving the residual stresses for various materials and structures. In recent years, the ultrasonic technique has shown reliable assessment of residual stresses in several fields such as gears, aerospace industry, welded structures, nuclear reactors, shipbuilding, aerospace industry, and construction. This research is concentrated on the ultrasonic technique as a safe test for measuring the residual stresses due to its reliability, accuracy and convenient to use with freedom of radiation hazards. This research expressed the principles of ultrasonic technique with respect to importance, field of application, advantages, disadvantages, the microstructure effect, and the reciprocal relation between direction of ultrasonic wave.

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