The Middle East region of Iraq is facing an extreme drought due to climatically changes. Recently, eastern part of Iraq experience a periods of dry seasons with unexpected rate of uncontrollable surface runoff during rainy periods that comes from outside Iraqi border. There is no sustainable reservoir policy and plans to manage the destructive power of water due to unexpected rate of surface runoff that comes from our neighbors. The need for water harvesting in the national lands of Iraq during rainy periods and controlling the paths of surface runoff from neighbors is imminent. One of the important solutions to water crises and ensuring water storage is to immediately start studying the main valleys highly qualified to develop runoff that results in potential runoff events for torrential floods. In the current research, the Billia basin on the Iraqi-Iranian border (851.949 km2) was studied for the purpose of water harvesting in addition to determining the amount of surface runoff and sediment load generated. In this study, the required data was obtained using a Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) for a period of 35 years from 1979 to 2014.GIS technology was used for preparing required input data such as soil, land use and DEM maps. Runoff prediction and sediment was carried out using Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). the annual volume of the surface water collected was (141099793.38 m3) and the annual total sediment load was 566.57 Ton/ha. A small gabion dams a small gabion dam heights varied from 3 up to 5 meters with capacities between 60000 to 100000 m3 can be suggested for water retention to impede soil erosion, at the same time reduce the stored areas exposed to high temperature which leads to high water loss through evaporation.

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