Prior studies showed that both girls and boys typically use their metacognitive skills in learning. The aim of this study is to examine the aspects measuring the students’ mathematical achievement in Indonesia. By applying multilevel analysis to the Programme for International Student Assesment (PISA) 2018 data for Indonesia, this study showed that gender, index of economic social and cultural status (ESCS), metacognition, and learning time are student-level explanatory variables that influence the students’ mathematics achievement. The findings showed that Indonesia education policymakers should consider student gender, ESCS, student metacognition and learning time that can affect students’ mathematics achievement. ESCS, metacognition, and learning time had positive relationships with the mathematics achievement, while gender had a negative. Higher ESCS, higher metacognition and higher learning time suggested higher achievement in mathematics, where girls were more prevalent that boys. The interaction between the ESCS (student-level) and stratio (school-level) was significant effected to mathematics achievement. It determined that gender, ESCS, metacognition, learning time, and interaction between ESCS and stratio highlighted most of the variance in students’ mathematical achievement.

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