Metacognitive skills help students meet life's challenges in the twenty-first century. Metacognition is the awareness and control of cognitive processes or the knowledge and monitoring of mental processes. The present study aimed to determine the potential of learning models to promote metacognitive skills. Also, assess the learning models' strengths and limitations in promoting metacognitive skills. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effect of learning models on metacognitive skills. The data for this study came from previously unpublished studies, including undergraduate theses, graduate theses, and dissertations authored by Biology students at Universitas Negeri Malang. The data set includes 56 research reports (28 undergraduate, 22 graduate, and six post-graduate) that tested a total of 35 learning models. Various learning models can primarily increase metacognitive skills by incorporating those skills within the syntax learning models. Additionally, the feasibility of the learning syntax, the teacher's capacity to apply the learning model, and the students' academic competence all played a role in determining the learning model's strengths and limitations.

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