The purpose of this meta-analysis study is to determine the effectiveness of problem-based learning on critical thinking in the biology learning process in Indonesia. Literature searches were conducted on data from 2010 to December 2020 with data sources from Google Scholar using the keywords "problem-based learning", and "critical thinking" in English and Indonesian. The article is used in this study if 1) the article uses problem-based learning as its learning model; 2) use critical thinking as a bound variable; 3) the field of research on biology learning-process; 4) use experimental and class control in their research methods; and 5) listed basic statistical data information such as N, Mean and deviation standard or variance in the research. Based on the results of the search obtained 980 suitable articles, 657 articles were issued because they cannot be accessed and the result of other disciplines research, 323 articles further analysis in its entirety. From the follow-up analysis, as 306 articles were eliminated because it did not include a description of basic statistics such as N, Mean and deviation standard or variance as a meta-analysis requirement, conclusively obtained 16 articles that meet the requirements. The calculation of meta-analysis and publication bias is done using JASP application. The calculation result on the problem-based learning effect size number to critical thinking as a whole has a value number 1.33, with an average standard of error was 0.61. It means that the effectiveness of problem-based learning to critical thinking is in a large category, but regrettably, this study still leads to bias publication. The conclusion of this study is problem-based learning gives an effective influence on critical thinking in the biology learning process. For further research, more articles are needed that include basic statistical information in the publications to cover the shortcomings of publication biases in this study.

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