Indonesia is one of the largest cassava producers globally, where the cassava wastes have not been optimally utilized yet. Cassava stems are lignocellulosic materials that are potential as raw materials for composite boards. This study aims to determine the effect of the adhesive content of Natural Rubber Latex (NRL) adhesive on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard from the waste of cassava stems (agriboard). The NRL-based adhesives were formulated from natural rubber, poly(vinyl) alcohol, and isocyanate. The levels of NRL adhesive used were 10%, 15%, and 20%. The agriboard panels were prepared with a size of 400 mm×400 mm×10 mm and a target density of 0.7 g/cm3. The board was hot-pressed at 60°C under 10 MPa of pressure for 30 minutes. Evaluation of physical and mechanical properties was done according to JIS 5908-2003 standard. The results showed that the density of agriboard ranged from 0.65–0.74 g/cm3, and the moisture content was around 4.51–5.34%. Water absorption and thickness swelling of agriboard panel ranged from 61.84–70.84% and 23.67–28.77%, respectively. The results revealed that the dimensional stability of agriboard increased with the higher adhesive content, indicating that the urethane linkages produced from the reaction between –NCO of isocyanate and –OH of cassava stems enhanced the adhesion strength of the panel. The MOE and MOR values of agriboard were in the range of 229.20-331.38 MPa and 2.49-3.13 MPa, respectively. The mechanical properties of the panel also increased with higher adhesive content, and the optimum result was obtained by using 20% of adhesive content. In addition, the NRL-bonded panel did not emit formaldehyde, as the panel did not bond with formaldehyde-based adhesives. The results showed that cassava stems and NRL adhesive could be used as an alternative composite product that is renewable and environmentally friendly, particularly for non-structural and interior applications. Keywords: cassava stem, composite board, natural rubber latex, adhesive content, bio-based adhesive.

1.
Asmara
,
S.
,
Kuncoro
,
S.
, and
Zulkarnain
,
I.
Training on handling cassava stem waste using a cassava stem chopper machine (rabakong) in Tanjung Bulan Village, Kasui District, Way Kanan
.
Sakai Sambayan — Journal of Community Service
3
(
2
),
68
74
(
2019
).
2.
BPS Lampung Province
.
Lampung Province in Figures 2017. BPS Lampung Province.
Pp.
364
(
2018
).
3.
Zhu
,
W.
,
Lestander
,
A.T.
,
Orberg
,
H.
,
Wei
,
M.
,
Hedman
,
B.
,
Ren
,
J.
,
Xie
,
G.
, and
Xiong
,
S.
Cassava Stems: A New Resource to Increase Food and Fuel Production
.
GCB Bioenergy
7
,
72
83
(
2015
).
4.
Ismail
,
N.I.
,
Nordin
,
K.
,
Hamzah
,
N.
,
Jamaluddin
,
M.A.
, dan
Bahari
,
S.A.
Physical properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta) stem at different locations along the height
.
International Journal of Advances in Science Engineering and Technology
4
(
3
),
115
118
(
2016
).
5.
Davinsy
,
R.
,
Maulana
,
S.
,
Maulana
,
M. I.
,
Satria
,
E. D.
,
Nawawi
,
D. S.
,
Sari
,
R. K.
,
Hidayat
,
W.
, and
Febrianto
,
F.
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Bamboo Oriented Strand Board at Various Shelling Ratios
.
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
17
(
2
),
152
159
(
2019
).
6.
Maulana
,
S.
,
Hidayat
,
W.
,
Sumardi
,
I.
,
Wistara
,
N. J.
,
Maulana
,
M. I.
,
Kim
,
J. H.
,
Lee
,
S. H.
,
Kim
,
N. H.
, and
Febrianto
,
F.
Properties of Dual-species Bamboo-Oriented Strand Boards Bonded with Phenol Formaldehyde Adhesive under Various Compression Ratios
.
BioResources
16
(
3
),
5422
5435
(
2021
).
7.
Hidayat
,
W.
,
Suri
,
I. F.
,
Safe'i
,
R.
,
Wulandari
,
C.
,
Satyajaya
,
W.
,
Febryano
,
I. G.
, and
Febrianto
,
F.
Keawetan dan Stabilitas Dimensi Papan Partikel Hibrida Bambu-Kayu dengan Perlakuan Steam dan Perendaman Panas
.
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
17
(
1
),
68
82
(
2019
).
8.
Lubis
,
M. A. R.
,
Park
,
B.-D.
, &
Lee
,
S.-M.
Performance of Hybrid Adhesives of Blocked-pMDI / Melamine- Urea-Formaldehyde Resins for the Surface Lamination on Plywood
.
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
47
(
2
),
200
209
(
2019
).
9.
Aristri
,
M. A.
,
Lubis
,
M. A. R.
,
Yadav
,
S. M.
,
Antov
,
P.
,
Papadopoulos
,
A. N.
,
Pizzi
,
A.
,
Fatriasari
,
W.
,
Ismayati
,
M.
, &
Iswanto
,
A. H.
Recent Developments in Lignin- and Tannin-Based Non-Isocyanate Polyurethane Resins for Wood Adhesives—A Review
.
Applied Sciences
11
(
9
),
4242
(
2021
).
10.
Hermiati
,
E.
,
Lubis
,
M. A. R.
,
Risanto
,
L.
,
Laksana
,
R. P. B.
,
Zaini
,
L. H.
Characteristics and Bond Performance of Wood Adhesive Made from Natural Rubber Latex and Alkaline Pretreatment Lignin
.
Procedia Chemistry
16
,
376
383
(
2015
).
11.
A. A., S.,
Varghese
,
S.
, &
Thomas
,
S.
Natural rubber latex-based adhesives: role of nanofillers
.
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology
35
(
4
),
406
418
(
2021
).
12.
Lubis
,
M. A. R.
,
Sari
,
F. P.
,
Laksana
,
R. P. B.
,
Fatriasari
,
W.
, &
Hermiati
,
E.
Ambient curable natural rubber latex adhesive cross-linked with polymeric isocyanate for bonding wood
.
Polymer Bulletin
1
11
. (
2021
).
13.
Japanese Industrial Standard
.
Particleboard. JIS A. 5908-2003
,
1
20
(
2003
)
14.
Febrianto
,
F.
,
Sahroni
,
Hidayat
,
W.
,
Bakar
,
E. S.
,
Kwon
,
G. J.
,
Kwon
,
J. H.
, Hong,
S.
Il
, and
Kim
,
N. H.
Properties of Oriented Strand Board made from Betung Bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper (Schultes.f) Backer ex Heyne
).
Wood Science and Technology
46
(
1
),
53
62
(
2012
)
15.
Hidayat
,
W.
,
Sya'bani
,
M. I.
,
Purwawangsa
,
H.
,
Iswanto
,
A. H.
, and
Febrianto
,
F.
Effect of Wood Species and Layer Structure on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Strand Board
.
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
9
(
2
),
134
140
(
2011
).
16.
Nakanishi
,
E.Y.
,
Cabral
,
M.R.
,
Gonçalves
,
P. de S.
,
Santos
,
V.
dos
,
Savastano Junior
,
H.
Formaldehyde-free particleboards using natural latex as the polymeric binder
.
Journal of Cleaner Production
195
,
1259
1269
(
2018
).
17.
Maulana
,
S.
,
Gumelar
,
Y.
,
Fatrawana
,
A.
,
Maulana
,
M. I.
,
Hidayat
,
W.
,
Sumardi
,
I.
,
Wistara
,
N. J.
,
Lee
,
S.
,
Kim
,
N. H.
, and
Febrianto
,
F.
Destructive and Non-destructive Tests of Bamboo Oriented Strand Board under Various Shelling Ratios and Resin Contents
.
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology.
47
(
4
),
519
532
(
2019
)
18.
Kusumah
,
S.S.
,
Massijaya
,
S.Y.
,
Prasetyo
,
K.W.
,
Sutiawan
,
J.
,
Lubis
,
M.A.R.
,
Hermawan
,
D.
Surface modification of eco-friendly particleboard made from sorghum bagasse and citric acid sucrose adhesive
.
IOP Conference Series: Material Sciece and Engineering
935
,
012054
. (
2020
).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.