This study focuses on the US administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson and its relationship to the Indonesia-Malaysia conflict from 1963 to 1966. The main objective of this research is to clarify issues concerning economic interests and communist threats that influenced President Johnson’s administration’s reaction to the confrontation. The emphasis is on the period from the end of 1964, when President Johnson replaced President John F. Kennedy, to the end of the conflict in 1966. This study employs archival research methods with material obtained from the National Archives of Singapore as well as documents from The National Archive in London. The main reference document is the Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) file, which contains the President’s statements, memoranda, and telegrams during the conflict. The primary document has been selected, processed, analysed, and compiled to form a more objective and authoritative argument. Furthermore, secondary sources such as theses, journals, books, and memoirs were used to create a discussion narrative. In the end, this study concluded that economic interests and the communist threat influenced President Johnson’s administration’s reaction to the Indonesia-Malaysia conflict.

1.
S.
Thompson
, “
The United States and Southeast Asian Regionalism
” (
New York
:
Routledge
,
2018
).
2.
M.
Mohamad
, “
A Doctor in the House: The Memoirs of Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad
” (
Petaling Jaya
:
MPH Digital
,
2012
).
3.
CAB 129/110/6, C (62) 106
, “
Memorandum by the Prime Minister
, 4 July
1962
” (
London
:
TNA
).
4.
PREM 11/3418
, The Grand Design: Letter from Tunku Abdul Rahman to Mr. Macmillan. Enclosure: ‘Integration of British North Borneo Territories and Singapore with the Federation of Malaysia’, in
A. J.
Stockwell
(ed.), “
Malaysia: British Documents on the End of Empire Project (BDEEP)
,” (Series B, Vol. 8, London: TSO).
5.
L. K.
Yew
, “
The Singapore Story: Memoirs of Lee Kuan Yew
” (
Singapore
:
Prentice Hall
,
1998
).
6.
P.
Sodhy
,
Journal of Southeast Asian Studies
,
19
,
1
,
111
136
(
1988
).
7.
A.
Lau
, “
A Moment of Anguish: Singapore in Malaysia and the Politics of Disengagement
” (
Singapore
:
Times Academic Press
,
1998
).
8.
W. Q.
Ngoei
. “
Arc of Containment: Britain, the United States, and Anticommunism in Southeast Asia
,” (
Singapore
:
ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute
,
2019
).
9.
M.
Jones
, “
Conflict and Confrontation in South East Asia, 1961-1965: Britain, The United States and the Creation of Malaysia
” (
London
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2002
).
10.
S.
Thompson
, “
The United States and Southeast Asian Regionalism: Collective Security and Economic Development, 1945-75
” (
New York
:
Routledge
,
2018
).
11.
S. H.
Ismail
, “|The American Connection and Australian Policy in Southeast Asia, 1945-1965” (Unpublished PhD diss.,
Queensland
:
The University of Queensland
,
2009
).
12.
M.
Leigh
, “
Deals, Datus and Dayaks: Sarawak and Brunei in the Making of Malaysia
” (
Petaling Jaya
:
SIRD
,
2017
).
13.
F.
Zubir
,
I.
Suryani
, and
N.
Ghazali
Integration of Augmented Reality into College Yearbook
”, (
MATEC Web of Conferences
,
2018
), pp.
05031
.
14.
M.
Rizon
,
D.
Hazry
,
M.
Karthigayan
,
R.
Nagarajan
,
N.
Alajlan
,
Y.
Sazali
, ‖
Ina
Suryani
, R. “
Personalized human emotion classification using genetic algorithm
”, (
2nd International Conference in Visualisation
,
2009
) pp.
224
228
.
15.
I.
Suryani
,
A.
Yacob
and
N. H. Abd
Aziz
,
Asian Social Science
,
11
(
28
),
293
302
, (
2015
)
16.
S.
Ina
,
Y.
Aizan
and
N.M. Abd
Aziz
,
Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
,
23
(
4
),
1139
1152
(
2015
).
17.
FRUS, Malaysia
, “
Memorandum of Conversation, Indonesia/Malaysia, 19 December 1963
” (Vol.
XXIII
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
, 1961-
1963
).
18.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
Telegram from the Department of State to the Embassy in the Philippines, 6 January 1964
” (Vol.
XXVI
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
, 1964-
1968
).
19.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
Telegram from the Department of State to the Embassy in the Philippines, 6 January 1964
” (Vol.
XXVI
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
, 1964-
1968
).
20.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
Telegram from the Department of State to the Embassy in the Philippines, 6 January 1964
” (Vol.
XXVI
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
, 1964-
1968
).
21.
T. A. R.
Al-Haj
, “
Looking Back: Monday Musings and Memories
” (
Kuala Lumpur
:
Pustaka Antara
,
1977
).
22.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
Letter from Rusk to Barwick, 9 January 1964
” (Vol.
XXVI
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
, 1964-
1968
).
23.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
Special Memorandum prepared by the Director of the Office of National Estimates of the Central Intelligence Agency (Kent), 26 January 1965
” (Vol.
XXVI
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
, 1964-
1968
).
24.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
Special National Intelligence Estimate, Prospect for Strategic Implications of a Communist Takeover in Indonesia, 1 September 1965
” (Vol.
XXVI
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
, 1964-
1968
).
25.
G.
Shafie
, “
Ghazali Shafie’s Memoir on the Formation of Malaysia
” (
Bangi
:
Penerbit UKM
).
26.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
Telegram from the Embassy in Indonesia to the Department of State, 23 January 1964
” (Vol.
XXVI
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
,
1964
1968
).
27.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
W. Q. Ngoei. “Arc of Containment: Britain, the United States, and Anticommunism in Southeast Asia
” (
Singapore
:
ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute
,
2019
).
28.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
Instructions from Bundy to Robert Kennedy, 14 January 1964
” (Vol.
XXVI
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
, 1964-
1968
).
29.
P.
Sodhy
,
Journal of Southeast Asian Studies
,
19
,
1
,
111
136
(
1988
).
30.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
Telegram From the Department of State to the Mission to the United Nations, 15 January 1965
” (Vol.
XXVI
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
, 1964-
1968
).
31.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
Memorandum for President Johnson, 1 October 1965
” (Vol.
XXVI
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
, 1964-
1968
).
32.
M.
Mohamad
, “
A Doctor in the House: The Memoirs of Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad
” (
Petaling Jaya
:
MPH Digital
,
2012
).
33.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
FRUS, Memorandum for President Johnson, 1 October 1965
” (Vol.
XXVI
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
, 1964-
1968
).
34.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
FRUS, Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassy in Indonesia, 20 January 1966
” (Vol.
XXVI
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
, 1964-
1968
).
35.
FRUS, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines
, “
Memorandum from Donald W. Ropa to Rostow, 18 April 1966
” (Vol.
XXVI
,
Washington D. C
.:
U. S. Government Printing Office
, 1964-
1968
).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.