Al-Najaf sea depression is one of the regions that witnessed many climate changes during the past thirty years. In this study, remote sensing techniques (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) applications were used to detect changes that occurred in the water area and land cover of Al-Najaf sea. The landsat5 Thematic Mapper (TM), landsat8 Operational Land Image (OLI) satellite data (30images) were used form 1990 to 2020. The supervised classification process was performed with Maximum likelihood method, the area and percentage of each class was calculated. Water and vegetation cover changes were observed using Modification of Normalized Difference Water Index (mNDWI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), technology. In this study, will be analyzed Najaf sea depression area, precipitation and temperature, revealing the impact of climate change and human activities on long-term water changes. Through the results, the variation of the surface water area in Najaf sea depression is mainly affected by the precipitation and flow of water towards the flood plains, maximum water body area in 2013 and the minimum water bodies is in 2002. Human impacts appeared on the Najaf Sea depression, where fish farms were established on the western side of it and wells were dug for the purpose of filling them, which caused a clear increase in sea water from 2014 and reached its highest value in 2020.

1.
LU
,
Shanlong
, et al 
Water body mapping method with HJ-1A/B satellite imagery
.
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation
,
2011
,
13.3
:
428
434
.
2.
SETEGN
,
Shimelis
G.
, et al Climate change impact on agricultural water resources variability in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia. In: Nile River Basin.
Springer
,
Dordrecht
,
2011
. p.
241
265
.
3.
LI
,
Aidi
, et al 
Predicting active-layer soil thickness using topographic variables at a small watershed scale
.
Plos one
,
2017
,
12.9
:
e0183742
.
4.
DEVI
,
M. Renuka
;
BABOO
,
S.
Santhosh
.
Land use and land cover classification using RGB&L based supervised classification algorithm
.
International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Technology
2
,
167
,
2011
,
180
.
5.
Abdul Jabbar
,
M.F.
,
A.F.
Al-Ma’amar
and
A.T.
Shehab
(
2010
).
Change detections in marsh areas, south Iraq, Using remote sensing and GIS applications
.
Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining.
6
(
2
):
17
39
.
6.
Kadem Tahaner
,
M
(
2020
).
Measurement of some pollutants in some wetland environments in the Sea of Najaf Dirasat Tarbawiya
.2020:
13
(
49
)
7.
Majead
,
H. Najer
;
Saleh
,
M.
Jawaad
.
The effectiveness of specific concentration of natural radioactivity
.
Al Bahear Journal of Science
4
,
54
,
2016
,
238
.
8.
Dawood
,
S.
Abdulameer
.
Characterization, Classification and Prediction of Soil Map Units Boundaries by Using Remote Sensing and GIS in Bahar Al-Najaf/Iraq
.
Journal of physics
3
,
1
14
,
2018
,.
9.
Albarakat
R
,
Lakshmi
V
,
Tucker
CJ
.
Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Study the Impact of Climate and Anthropogenic Changes in the Mesopotamian Marshlands
,
Iraq. Remote Sensing.
2018
Oct;
10
(
10
):
1524
.
10.
B. M.
Hashim
,
M. A.
Sultan
,
M. N.
Attyia
,
A. A.
Al Maliki
and
N.
Al-Ansari
, "
Change Detection and Impact of Climate Changes to Iraqi Southern Marshes Using Landsat 2 MSS, Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel 2 MSI Data and GIS Applications
,"
Applied Sciences
, vol.
9, p
.
2016, 2019
.
11.
MOHAMMAD
,
Mohammad
K.
, et al 
The biodiversity of Bahr Al-Najaf depression, Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Province. Bulletin of the Iraq Natural History Museum
,
2013
, 12.3:
21
30
.
12.
MIZHIR
,
Aliaa H.
;
ALTAIF
,
Khalil I.
;
MHAISEN
,
Furhan
T.
Occurrence of Helminth Parasites in some Aquatic Birds in Bahr Al-Najaf Depression, Mid Iraq
.
13.
Gilabert
,
M. A.
,
González-Piqueras
,
J.
,
Garcıa-Haro
,
F. J.
, &
Meliá
,
J.
(
2002
).
A generalized soil-adjusted vegetation index
.
Remote Sensing of environment
,
82
(
2-3
),
303
310
.
14.
D'Allestro
,
P.
, &
Parente
,
C.
(
2015
).
GIS application for NDVI calculation using Landsat 8 OLI images
.
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research
,
10
(
21
),
42099
42102
.
15.
MCFEETERS
,
Stuart
K.
The use of the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) in the delineation of open water features
.
International journal of remote sensing
,
1996
,
17.7
:
1425
1432
.
16.
XU
,
Hanqiu
.
Modification of normalised difference water index (NDWI) to enhance open water features in remotely sensed imagery
.
International journal of remote sensing
,
2006
,
27.14
:
3025
3033
.
17.
WANG
,
Ruimeng
, et al 
Dynamic Monitoring of Surface Water Area during 1989–2019 in.the Hetao Plain Using Landsat Data in Google Earth Engine
.
Water
,
2020
,
12.11
:
3010
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.