New, sustainable low-Carbon Dioxide (CO2) construction materials must be developed for the global building sector to decrease its environmental impact. During the last several decades, Alkali-activated Materials (AAMs) is a Portland cement-free form, have been intensively researched as a potential alternative for ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPCC), with the objective of lowering CO2 emissions while repurposing a large volume of industrial waste by-products. The suitability of using AAMs made up of industrial waste by-products such as blast furnace slag (BFS), calcined clay (metakaolin), and fly ash (FA) was investigated in this study utilizing a performance-based approach that was unaffected by binder chemistry, history, or environmental effect, Binder paste microstructural assessment and influence on engineering effectiveness, including fresh and hardened characteristics of these materials, In the Viewpoints area, we analyze specific premature phase and long-phase performance of AAMs, as well as Upcoming scientific breakthroughs are also discussed in the Viewpoints section.

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