In spite of its transparency, the determination process for the properties of submersible object into water is a difficult task. One of these difficulties arises from the differences in refractive indices between two different mediums such as air and water which changes the visual appearance of the immersed object. Such difficulties will provide unprecise measurements and hence the need for analyzing and having a mathematical model for such situation is a critical need. This paper introduced seven mathematical models to simulate the properties of two bodies (floating and submersible objects) under the effect of light attenuation and refraction phenomena caused by differences in refractive indices between air and water. Results show an accuracy in describing object’s properties in underwater environment for both floating and submersible used bodies. The proposed models gave a good indicator in detecting underwater object’s properties with lowest values for Mean Square Error (MSE) which had been used here. The lowest value for MSE had been detected upon scaling factor followed by Magnification and object’s length estimator at final.

1.
K.
Lebart
,
Ch.
Smith
,
E.
Trucco
and
D. M.
Lane
, “
Automatic Indexing of Underwater Survey Video: Algorithm and Benchmarking Method
” in
IEEE Journal Of Oceanic Engineering
,
28
(
4
) (
2003
).
2.
R.
Cheng
,
C.
Zhang
,
Q.
Xu
,
G.
Liu
,
Y.
Song
,
X.
Yuan
and
J.
Sun
, “
Underwater Fish Body Length Estimation Based on Binocular Image Processing
” in
Information
,
11
(
476
) (
2020
) doi:.
3.
R.
Schettini
and
S.
Corchs
, “
Underwater Image Processing: State of the Art of Restoration and Image Enhancement Methods
” in
Hindawi Publishing Corporation EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 2010
(
14
) (
2010
) doi:.
4.
A.
Yamashita
,
A.
Fujii
and
T.
Kaneko
,
Stereo measurement of objects in liquid and estimation of refractive index of liquid by using images of water surface
(
IntechOpen
,
2011
).
5.
Al-Dalawy
,
“Optical image analysis for the underwater targets,” Ph.D. thesis
,
Department of Physics, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University
,
2013
.
7.
A. A. D.
Al-Zuky
,
A. M.
Al-Hillou
and
F. E. M.
Al-Obaidi
, “
Scattering effects upon test image inside a designing system facing the equator
” in
Journal of Optics, Springer
41
(
1
) (
2012
), pp.
54
59
.
8.
F. E. M.
Al-Obaidi
, “
Quality Determination for Drinking Water by Using Image Quality Assessment
” in
Arabian Gulf Journal of Scientific Research (AGJSR)
,
33
(
2/3
) (
2015
).
9.
M.
Yang
and
A.
Sowmya
, “
New image quality evaluation metric for underwater video
” in
IEEE Signal Processing Letters
21
(
10
) (
2014
).
10.
J. Y.
Chiang
and
Y-Ch
Chen
, “
Underwater image enhancement by wavelength compensation and dehazing
” in
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
,
21
(
4
) (
2012
).
11.
A.
Chybicki
, “
Mapping south Baltic near-shore bathymetry using sentinel-2 observations
” in
Polish Maritime Research
3
(
24
) (
2017
), pp.
15
25
.
12.
J. T.
Dietrich
, “
Bathymetric structure-from Motion: extracting shallow stream bathymetry from multi-view stereo photogrammetry
” in
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms
42
(
2017
), pp.
355
364
.
13.
B. G.
Batchelor
, “Light and Optics” in
Machine Vision Handbook
(
Springer-Verlag London Limited
2012
).
14.
Z.
Chen
,
K-Y. K.
Wong
,
Y.
Matsushita
and
X.
Zhu
, “
Depth from Refraction Using a Transparent Medium with Unknown Pose and Refractive Index
” in
International Journal of Computer Vision
102
(
2013
).
15.
H. Kh.
Abbas
,
H. J.
Mohamad
,
A. H.
Al-Saleh
and
A. A.
Al-Zuky
, “
Modelling vision angles of optical camera zoom using image processing algorithm
” in
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering
571
(
02117
) (
2019
).
16.
S. H.
Ali
,
A. A. D.
Al-Zuky
,
A. H.
Al-Saleh
and
H. J.
Mohamad
, “
Measure liquid viscosity by tracking falling ball automatically depending on image processing algorithm
” in
IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series
1294
(
022002
) (
2019
).
17.
F. E. M.
Al-Obaidi
, “
Image Quality Assessment for Defocused Blur Images
” in
American Journal of Signal Processing
5
(
3
) (
2015
).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.