The new epidemic of coronavirus disease-19 outbreak has caused rapid morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, and health parameters have been proposed to influence disease progression. Among these parameters are index of body mass (BMI) and D vitamin. 86 patients with same number of control were studied( case-control) to find the relationship between the BMI, vitamin D and risk of COVID-19. Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) serum level was estimated by ELISA. Results revealed that the age mean value was elevated significantly in cases compared to normal persons, and 50% of patients were 50 years of age or older. patients BMI were higher significantly in comparison with controls, and most of patients were overweight/obese (76.7%). The Vitamin D level decreased in patients significantly compared to control, and most of patients were severely-deficient (75.6%). Logistic-regression-analysis depicted a high risk of COVID-19 in.obese cases (OR= 26.39; 95% interval of confidence [CI]: 7.02–99.24; p<0.001), and in patients with severe deficient in vitamin D (OR=13.34; 95% CI: 6.32–28.19;<0.001). Moreover, overweight/obese patients severely deficient in vitamin D were at high risk of developing COVID-19 infection (OR=230.55; 95% CI: 43.98– 1208.67; p<0.001). Curve analysis of ROC(Receiver-operating-characteristic) showed that BMI and vitamin D occupied under curve significant area (0.770 and 0.864, respectively). In conclusions, the study indicated that individuals who were overweight/obese and severely deficient in vitamin D were more susceptible to develop COVID-19.

1.
N.
Ali
.
J. Infect. Public Health.
13
.
1373
1380
. (
2020
).
2.
S.
Amiri
,
S.
Behnezhad
,
J.
Hasani
.
Obes. Med.
18.
100196
.(
2020
).
3.
C.
Annweiler
,
Z.
Cao
,
J.M.
Sabatier
.
Maturitas.
140.
24
26
. (
2020
).
4.
F.P.
De Heredia
,
S.
Gómez-Martínez
,
A.
Marcos
.
CUP.
332
338
. (
2012
).
5.
H.
Ge
,
Wang
,
Yuan
X.
,
Xiao
X.
,
Wang
G.
,
Deng
C.
,
Yuan
T.
,
Q.
Xiao
.
Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
39.
1011
1019
. (
2020
).
6.
A.F.
Gombart
.
Future Microbiol.
(
2009
).
7.
V.
Hegde
,
N. V.
Dhurandhar
.
Clin. Microbiol. Infect.
(
2013
).
8.
M.F.
Holick
.
Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord.
18.
153
165
. (
2017
).
9.
A.
Hussain
,
K.
Mahawar
,
Z.
Xia
,
W.
Yang
,
S.
El-Hasani
.
Obes. Res. Clin. Pract.
14
.
295
300
. (
2020
).
10.
K.A.
Kennel
,
M.T.
Drake
,
D.L.
Hurley
.
Mayo Clin. Proc.
(
2010
).
11.
E.M.
Kościuczuk
,
P.
Lisowski
,
J.
Jarczak
,
N.
Strzałkowska
,
A.
Jóźwik
,
J.
Horbańczuk
,
J.
Krzyżewski
,
L.
Zwierzchowski
,
E.
Bagnicka
.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
(
2012
).
12.
P.
Lee
.
Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
25
.
769
781
.(
2011
).
13.
P.
Maresova
,
E.
Javanmardi
.
S.
Barakovic
,
J.
Barakovic Husic
,
S.
Tomsone
,
O.
Krejcar
,
K.
Kuca
.
BMC Public Health.
19
.
1431
. (
2019
).
14.
E.
Montecino-Rodriguez
,
B.
Berent-Maoz
,
K.
Dorshkind
.
J. Clin. Invest.
(
2013
).
15.
G.
Muscogiuri
,
G.
Pugliese
,
L.
Barrea
,
S.
Savastano
,
A.
Colao
.
Metabolism.
108.
8
10
. (
2020
).
16.
F.Q.
Nuttall
.
Nutr. Today.
50
.
117
128
. (
2015
).
17.
P.
Lisowski
,
J.
Jarczak
,
N.
Strzałkowska
,
A.
Jóźwik
,
J.
Horbańczuk
,
J.
Krzyżewski
,
L.
Zwierzchowski
,
E.
Bagnicka
.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
(
2013
).
18.
D.
O’Shea
,
M.
Corrigan
,
M.R.
Dunne
,
R.
Jackson
,
C.
Woods
,
G.
Gaoatswe
,
P.N.
Moynagh
,
J.
O’Connell
,
A.E.
Hogan
.
Int. J. Obes.
37
.
1510
1513
. (
2013
).
19.
C.
Palacios
,
L.
Gonzalez
.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
144
.
138
145
. (
2014
).
20.
A.
Pan
,
L.
Liu
,
C.
Wang
,
H.
Guo
,
X.
Hao
,
Q.
Wang
,
J.
Huang
,
N.
He
,
H.
Yu
 et al 
JAMA - J. Am. Med. Assoc.
323
.
1915
1923
. (
2020
).
21.
M.
Peng
.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
129
.
110499
. (
2020
).
22.
B.
Prietl
,
G.
Treiber
,
T.
Pieber
,
K.
Amrein
.
Nutrients.
5
.
2502
2521
. (
2013
).
23.
J.M.
Quesada-Gomez
,
M.E.
Castillo
,
R.
Bouillon
.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
202.
105719
. (
2020
).
24.
S.A.
Rojas-Osornio
,
T.R.
Cruz-Hernández
,
M.E.
Drago-Serrano
,
R.
Campos-Rodríguez
.
Obes. Res. Clin. Pract.
13
.
419
429
. (
2019
).
25.
A.
Tamara
,
D.L.
Tahapary
.
Diabetes Metab. Syndr. Clin. Res. Rev.
14.
655
659
. (
2020
).
26.
J.
Liu
,
R.
Zhang
,
M.
Li
,
Z.
Li
,
X.
Zhou
,
C.
Hu
,
F.
Tian
,
F.
Zhou
,
Y.
Lei
.
J. Clin. Virol.
129
.
104475
. (
2019
).
27.
A.
Wilder-Smith
,
C.J.
Chiew
,
V.J.
Lee
.
Lancet Infect. Dis.
20.
102
107
. (
2020
).
28.
L.
Yang
,
J.
Liu
,
R.
Zhang
,
M.
Li
,
Z.
Li
,
X.
Zhou
,
C.
Hu
,
F.
Tian
,
F.
Zhou
,
Y.
Lei
.
J. Clin. Virol.
129.
104475
. (
2020
).
29.
S.
Yegorov
,
S.
Bromage
,
N.
Boldbaatar
,
D.
Ganmaa
.
Front. Nutr.
6.
166
. (
2019
).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.