The present article gives a review about water purification, filtration techniques and technologies that are practiced till date. Purification of water is mainly focused because of a sensitive reason that it is one of the essential sources of survival for all living beings. Water is found in many forms on the earth’s surface, large amount of drinking water is from lakes and rivers. All living beings need drinking water but human beings need them to be drunk in a purified manner with rich in minerals and salts. Pure water refers to absence of bacteria and disease causing microorganisms, dissolved metal ions and heavy impurities. To gain the whole usefulness of drinking water, it should be not only pure but also healthy. Healthy water refers to presence of nutrients such as minerals and salts that are required to the human body for functioning of body organs like heart, kidneys and blood circulation freely throughout the body. All the technologies had tried to make water pure but not healthy. This makes a lot of difference in life cycle before and after drinking only pure water for a longer period. Some technologies for purification of water chose harmful polymers and dreadful chemical compositions. The then technologies updated and entered into the nanotechnology and polymers for water purification and filtration. Reverse Osmosis is base for any purification process that uses semi permeable membrane which contains ultra, micro and nano porous membranes which removes bacteria and microbes as well as minerals and salts. This RO processed water may cause illness on consuming for a long time continuously. Hence some fiber composites and mineral cartridges were introduced to overcome to add minerals and salts to water. All these techniques adopted for purification of water and usage of fiber composites, polymer membranes are reviewed in this article with defects in them that might cause a lot of damage to mankind.

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