The learning difficulty of students in mastering scientific concepts has been continuously prompted for the need to investigate this problem particularly in the topic Buffer Solution effectively and efficiently. It needs an instrument to diagnose the conception and the problems which caused the negative outcome. This study aims to develop the structured essay diagnostic test of the buffer solution using three main stages which are defining the content, obtaining information about students’ misconceptions, and developing a diagnostic test. The data were used to develop two sets of questions about acid buffer solution and base buffer solution that arrange structured from prerequisite concepts to buffer solution concepts. This diagnostic test was validated by chemistry education and inorganic chemistry lecturers and was administrated to 242 senior high school students. This diagnostic instrument is valid and the reliability has 0.953 of Cronbach alpha reliability

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