In the context of the fossil fuels depletion, the bioenergy transition target objectives set by policy makers are increasingly challenging. There are massive negative ecological impacts in terms of deforestations, land use, emissions and greenhouse gases footprint, but also undesirable economic impacts. Science is struggling with the efficiency of the bio-chemical and thermodynamic processes, technology cannot achieve an entirely clean production at the expected performances and simultaneously curb down the costs. The paper performed a brief screening of the scientific, technical, social and economic basis for such a systemic orientation. The first section identified the criteria and analyzed the methodologies on which the major policies rely, the second section collected the experience feedback from science and industry and the third section reviewed the past, current and future trends in comparison with the policy targets and delivered interpretations. As a result of summarizing the bioenergy sector's efficiency, the paper qualified the extent to which biomass could become a complementary solution to the global energy demand.

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