One of the most basic tasks in quantum information processing, communication and security (QIPCC) research, theoretically deep and practically important, is to find bounds on how really important are inherently quantum resources for speeding up computations. This area of research is bringing a variety of results that imply, often in a very unexpected and counter-intuitive way, that: (a) surprisingly large classes of quantum circuits and algorithms can be efficiently simulated on classical computers; (b) the border line between quantum processes that can and cannot be efficiently simulated on classical computers is often surprisingly thin; (c) the addition of a seemingly very simple resource or a tool often enormously increases the power of available quantum tools. These discoveries have put also a new light on our understanding of quantum phenomena and quantum physics and on the potential of its inherently quantum and often mysteriously looking phenomena. The paper motivates and surveys research and its outcomes in the area of de-quantisation, especially presents various approaches and their outcomes concerning efficient classical simulations of various families of quantum circuits and algorithms. To motivate this area of research some outcomes in the area of de-randomization of classical randomized computations.

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