We demonstrate how to construct and operate a simple and affordable apparatus for producing coherent effects in atomic vapor and for investigating their applications in time-keeping and magnetometry. The apparatus consists of a vertical cavity surface emitting diode laser directly current-modulated using a tunable microwave oscillator to produce multiple optical fields needed for the observation of coherent population trapping. This effect allows very accurate measurement of the transition frequency between two ground state hyperfine sublevels, which can be used to construct a coherent population trapping-based atomic clock.
Atomic clocks and coherent population trapping: Experiments for undergraduate laboratories
Nathan Belcher, Eugeniy E. Mikhailov, Irina Novikova; Atomic clocks and coherent population trapping: Experiments for undergraduate laboratories. Am. J. Phys. 1 November 2009; 77 (11): 988–998. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.3120262
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