Causality in classical field theories must be inserted by hand by choosing the retarded solution. It is shown how apparent contradictions in the Coulomb gauge can be resolved and that a causal Coulomb field exists despite the appearance to the contrary. Similarly, it is shown how Newtonian gravitation leads from action-at-a-distance to a causal field when a first-order correction for space–time curvature is applied.
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April 01 2002
Causality, the Coulomb field, and Newton’s law of gravitation
F. Rohrlich; Causality, the Coulomb field, and Newton’s law of gravitation. Am. J. Phys. 1 April 2002; 70 (4): 411–414. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.1435345
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