Planck’s radiation formula is used to estimate the dimensionless efficiency of incandescent lamps as a function of filament temperature, with typical values of 2%–13%. Similarly, using the known spectral luminous efficiency of the eye, the efficacy of incandescent light bulbs is estimated as a function of temperature, showing values of 8–24 L W−1 for bulbs of 10–1000 W. The efficiency and efficacy results compare favorably with published data and enable estimation of the filament temperature for any lamp of known efficacy.

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